The disease is a condition of the living organism(Both Animals and Plants) where one of its parts impairs normal functioning and is typically manifested by distinguishing signs and symptoms.
How many diseases are there in the world?
Perhaps no one can answer this question because every other day new disorder is being identified.
But in this particular article, we are going to learn about diabetes, a life-threatening disease. 8 out of 10 people are affected by this disease. This disease is showing in every age group. It is incurable and can only be controlled with the help of medicine and diet.
Let’s understand in detail what causes diabetes? What are the types, and how to control them?
Cause of Diabetes
Diabetes is a chronic disease. It arises when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin(a hormone that helps your body turn blood sugar (glucose) into energy) or when the body cannot effectively use the insulin it produces.
Hyperglycaemia(High blood sugar)is a common effect of uncontrolled diabetes. Over time it causes severe damage to the body, especially the nerves and blood vessels.
There are many causes for increasing blood sugar.
The first and most reason is stress. Nowadays, people are living under pressure for their work, family, lifestyle and many more reasons.
And the second one is diet. We all know food gives us energy, and it helps our survival. At the same time, we are spreading diseases to our bodies without knowing.
Types Of Diabetes
There are mainly three types of diabetes.
- Type 1 diabetes
- Type 2 diabetes
- Gestational diabetes
Type 1 Diabetes
Scientists think that a gene of a person may play a role in type 1 diabetes. It does appear to pass down through generations of a family. If any of our family members have (or had) type 1, you are at a higher risk. If both parents have (or had) type 1, the probability of their child developing type 1 is higher than if just one parent has (or had) diabetes. Without family history, type 1 diabetes may occur.
Type 1 diabetes typically occurs in children and young adults, although it can appear at any age. We should know the symptoms of type 1 diabetes.
- Extreme hunger
- Increased thirst and frequent urination
- Blurred vision
- Unexpected weight loss
- Bed-wetting in children who previously did not wet the bed during the night.
- Dry mouth
- Mood changes
- Upset stomach and vomiting
If you feel any of these symptoms, then go to your doctor. If your doctor thinks you have type 1 diabetes, they will check your blood sugar levels. They may test your urine for glucose or chemicals your body makes when you do not have enough insulin.
Treatment:-Though it is not curable, but you can maintain your blood sugar level. The doctor recommends some insulin for significant diabetic patients, and usual type 1 patients can have medicine and follow a healthy diet with a few amounts of exercise.
2.Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is a lifelong disease. People with type 2 diabetes are said to have insulin resistance. It attacks people who are middle-aged or older. It used to be called adult-onset diabetes. But it also affects kids and teens, mainly because of childhood obesity.
There is no cure for type 2 diabetes. But it can be controlled if we take some steps for our betterment.
Type 2 diabetes symptoms are the same as type 1, and some additional indications are seen in both men and women.
Symptoms in Men
- Erectile dysfunction (impotence)
- Lower testosterone levels
- Retrograde ejaculation
- Decreased sex drive
Symptoms in women
- Polycystic ovary syndrome
- Vaginal itching and soreness
- Oral thrush
- Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)
First of all, when you start to experience such symptoms, you have to visit your doctor to confirm your disease. Then the doctor suspects by seeing your indications and asks for a blood test. Usually, they will test you for two days to confirm the diagnosis. But If your blood glucose(sugar) is very high or you have many symptoms, then you have to test A1c(It is like an average of your blood glucose over the past 2 or 3 months), Fasting plasma glucose(This is a fasting blood sugar test.
It estimates your blood sugar on an empty stomach. You will not be able to eat or drink anything except water for 8 hours before the test), oral glucose tolerance test (This checks your blood glucose before and 2 hours after you drink something sweet to see how your body handles the sugar). Then the doctor certifies you about diabetes and asks you to control your blood sugar by taking medicines.
Though it is also not curable like type 1, you have to switch your unhealthy lifestyle to a healthy & balanced lifestyle and use medications regularly to reach your target blood sugar level. Exercise & Healthy food are the major key factors for controlling your diabetes and helps you to live with this vicious disease easily. You have to cut your refined carbs from your food, eat fewer calories, avoid sugary food, include veggies and fruits in your diet, and do not skip your meals. Lastly, always observe your blood sugar level. If you have high blood sugar then you have to take insulin at the recommendation of a doctor.
Today’s generations are habituated to smoking. And it is very dangerous for diabetes patients. You have to quit smoking otherwise, you will be experiencing many more complications related to your heart, kidney, and lungs.
Gestational diabetes is a condition in which your blood sugar levels become high during pregnancy. And It affects pregnant women who have not ever been diagnosed with diabetes. There are two types of gestational diabetes. One is class A1, which is manageable by diet and exercise. The other is class A2, which needs insulin and medications to control during pregnancy. It goes away after your childbirth, but it can affect your child’s health and increases the chances of getting type 2 diabetes later in life. You have to take some precautions to save your child’s health from this dangerous disease.
Causes of gestational diabetes
During pregnancy, the placenta makes hormones that cause glucose to build up in your blood. Usually, your pancreas can send out enough insulin to handle it. But if your body can not make enough insulin or stops using insulin as it should, your blood sugar levels rise, and you get gestational diabetes.
Usually, gestational diabetes patients do not have many symptoms. Sometimes they are thirsty than usual, hungrier and eat more than usual, pee more than usual.
Risk factors relating to gestational diabetes
- Have had gestational diabetes before.
- Have a family member with diabetes.
- Have (PCOS) polycystic ovary syndrome or another health condition linked to problems with insulin.
- Have high blood pressure, high cholesterol, heart disease, or other medical complications
Usually, it happens in the second half of pregnancy.
Your doctor will check for it between weeks 24 and 28, or sooner if you are at high risk. Your doctor will advise you to take a glucose tolerance test. He asks you to take some amount of glucose and watch how your body handles it.
The doctor will track your weight and your baby’s development.
If needed he will give you insulin and other medications to keep your blood sugar under control
Health Impact on different organs
Over time it can damage your body organs badly.
Heart-There is a chance to get heart disease or have a stroke. You’re also at high risk of blocked blood vessels and chest pain.
If your kidneys get infected or you are experiencing kidney failure then you could need dialysis or kidney replacement.
Eye-most of diabetes patients loses their vision. High blood sugar can damage the tiny blood vessels in the backs of your eyes. If this isn’t treated, it can cause blindness.
Skin-Your blood does not circulate properly, so wounds heal slower and can become infected.
Brain-High blood sugar can damage your brain and might put you at higher risk of Alzheimer’s disease.
Pregnancy-Pregnant women with diabetes have more chance to have of miscarriage.
More about insulin
In 1925 we found the first insulin from beef and pork. After that, in the 1980’s we produced insulin from humans synthetically.
There are three main types of insulin we take when we are attacked by this vicious disease. We injected the insulin into the fatty tissue just under the skin.
- Is absorbed quickly from your fat tissue (subcutaneous) into the bloodstream.
- Is used to control the blood sugar during meals and snacks and to correct high blood sugars
- Is absorbed more slowly, and lasts longer
- Is used to control the blood sugar overnight, while fasting, and between meals
- Is absorbed more slowly and lasts longer
- Is used to control the blood sugar overnight, while fasting, and between meals
You should follow a healthy and easy breakfast to control your diabetes.
Checkout this article “Make Your Every Bite Healthy“
Points to Remember
- Diabetes is an incurable disease.
- It is not the time to fear this disease, it’s time to fight with this and have to learn to live with this disease for a lifetime.
- You have to control your blood sugar by changing your lifestyle and accepting the medication process.
- If you are not able to control your sugar level then you have to take the insulin by doctor’s recommendation.
- Proper diet, a good amount of exercise, and doctor-prescribed medication can help you to fight Diabetes.